Toolkit Extra- Hannah Nicklin- Narrative design choices and ‘multiple middles’

Whether you have been able to be creative or not, we want to try and find ways to support you to continue to be engaged with the craft of writing for performance, engaging with an audience, telling stories and taking people on journeys. We truly hope that this series of on-line workshops – will inspire and support you to be creative and to find new possibilities for your work to be realized.
This week’s toolkit was with Eve Leigh – a writer for performance working between theatre, digital, audio, games, and installation work. She recommended Hannah Nicklin’s – Suspension of disbelief in game design

Hannah Nicklin is CEO and Creative Lead at Die Gute Fabrik and Writer and Narrative Designer on the multiple award-winning Mutazione. Hannah has also written for theatre and is a Bruntwood Prize Longlisted writer and a Birmingham Playwriting Masters graduate.
Hannah also kindly offered this text-originally drafted as a talk for the GDC 2020 Narrative Design Innovation Panel co-curated by Clara Fernández-Vara. Here she talks about the narrative design choices and motivations for her ‘multiple middles’ as opposed to ‘multiple endings’…



One of the first things you’re often asked about interactive narrative is ‘how important are the choices’, ‘do they matter?’. I’d like to think all the choices characters make in a game ‘matter’, but the amount of control you have over them, and what they in turn affect, is often seen as the sum of how complex or accomplished a piece of narrative design is. A lot of games discourse tends towards judging the accomplishment of games on how close they get to the ‘real’ world of choice and consequence.

But sometimes abstraction rather than simulation or linearity, as opposed to branching, is a more useful storytelling tool.

In my opinion, when working in any form or set of expectations the craft is to consider the quality of the materials you’re working with – in this case writing for interaction. Like working with or against the grain of a piece of wood, or the qualities of stoneware versus porcelain – how you work it produces different results – but neither is wrong. What’s important is to understand the implications of the decisions you make.

When asked this question about ‘choice’ with regards to Mutazione, I have taken to describing the decisions I made as the game having ‘multiple middles’ rather than ‘multiple endings’.

In individual conversations I very much use the Kentucky Route Zero model of choice – colouring how the character plays the situation, but not letting you choose who the character is. Are you attempt-to-be-articulate Kai? Or are you diffuse-the-situation-with-a-joke Kai? Either way, you’re still Kai. The conversations branch; you might access different reactions, memories and stories; but they come to the same place at the end.

The player agency is instead to be found in exploration.

A gif of Kai, the player character of Mutazione running across a grassy expanse of ruins in the game.


Exploration as Player Agency.

Why did I come to this conclusion? Well, as writer and narrative designer coming to the project of Mutazione – though we’re mostly talking about narrative design decisions here – the brief that I started with was that it was:

  • Driven by an ensemble cast of characters.
  • A soap opera.
  • Centred around a theme of looking at a community which was aligned differently with nature.
  • Built on a clearly defined and pre-existing story-world and plot.

The decisions I therefore made about player choice were driven by these considerations, which could be translated as needing:

  • Room to develop many characters’ journeys in tandem
  • Drama-driven slice-of-life setting
  • Able to examine the interplay of community
  • Contrasted usefully with the fantastic setting and preserved the basic story and plotting set out by Creative Director Nils Deneken.

For this reason it made a lot of sense to not give the player significant means to affect outcomes – multiple endings. To not allow player agency to exert upon the outcome linearly – multiple ending style – but rather to invite them to shape their experience of the story laterally – sideways: multiple middles.

A gif of a garden in the game - the beach garden plays musical notes into the air as Spike sits and fishes, a sunset and the lighthouse stand behind him.
Spike goes in for a little sunset fishing.

Plot levels

The player choice in Mutazione is exploration rather than conversation-focussed. This meant a great deal of careful planning, to make sure that the mandatory moments in each time of day encouraged the player to discover B and C plots, in how they were spaced out, and in what they hinted at. It also meant thinking carefully about each characters’ journey through the game’s timeline, and how different levels of exploration would challenge the pacing. It meant adding certain times of day where the player had fewer options open to them – for either urgency, or to chime with natural rhythms, like morning or late at night. This is very common in ensemble cast TV shows, and if you’d like to hear more about that search for my other GDC talk Kill the Hero Save the (Narrative) World.

The A plot is the driving theme or problem of the episode. In day 5 of Mutazione, that’s ‘go on a boat trip with Tung and Miu and discovering you should grow a garden to help him with his boat making’.

‘B’ plots are the ‘secondary’ story in an episode, often lighter, comedic, or contrasting thematically in a way that reflects on the A plot – all of which makes the A plot more compelling when you return to it. In Day 5 in Mutazione B plots include following up on the events of the night before, when it was revealed that Spike the bartender has had a long running crush on Tung’s mother, Claire.

C’ plots are the smallest unit, and might resemble ‘empty’ side quests, but the difference in an ensemble setting is that you care about the characters because of previous investment in them. Which means that these details can be dealt with lightly, and be used to add to your satisfaction with the completeness of the universe. In Day 5 of Mutazione, a C plot would include the Sausage folk plotting a new scheme which this time will definitely make them all rich.

The only mandatory path is the A plot. The multiple middles are the choices you make in each time of day to dig into the B and C plots.

Because when the time of day moves on you won’t be able to access those conversations again.

The Journal

I co-developed narrative design details such as the journal – a diegetic means of setting out which conversations or actions were the mandatory A plot conversations for the time of day, and the last of those – the conversation which would move time forwards – was always marked by a timer symbol, so the player could choose if they were done exploring in that time of day. I also gave the many characters habits and routines, constructing plots which progressed whether or not you had found the first or second conversation gave a sense of a pre-existing and alive story-world in which you weren’t the only protagonist.The slice-of-life aspect of the soap opera genre was served by therefore being able to interweave many plot lines, and to allow the player to discover histories and participate in different dramas, past and present. In working with an ensemble cast I was able to vary tone widely – humour and tragedy could exist fairly naturally side by side, as well as huge events and minutiae – contributing to the picture of drama-driven domestic life which characteristic of the soap opera genre.

A gif of the character Mori, practicing tai chi near a garden in the swamps of Mutazione
Mori, the gossipiest of all the characters, relaxes with a little tai chi in the swamps.

Soap Opera and genre.

And that ‘soap opera’ setting of personal dramas and everyday routines and the choice I made to draw characters who were very naturalistic contrasted usefully with the fantasy setting – it gave a weight to the mutant world that otherwise could have come across as glib. The multiple middles also allowed me to build characterisation which was rich and complex, meaning that the full ensemble cast felt real and a part of the texture of the place. I worked carefully in the dialogue to imbue each character with a distinct voice – from cadence, idioms, style and manner of speech.

Finally, in being transparent about time, and combining this with the freedom to explore Nils’ wonderful wilderness and environments the narrative design was able to reflect the theme of a closeness to nature, and the main piece of mechanical gameplay; the magical musical gardens so beautiful composed (musically and programmatically respectively) by Alessandro Coronas and Douglas Wilson.

I made narrative design decisions that focussed on the characters as complex, rich, and a little different for the smallness of their community. I wanted getting to know them to feel like coming across a number of new plants you’d never seen before, watching them grow, tending to them where possible, and allowing them to surprise you.

I set out to build narrative design that would allow the player to choose their own pace: to push at the central plot, or to meander, wander, and grow at their story at their own pace. The themes of the story are tough – among the everyday it deals in trauma, colonialism, infidelity, ageing and illness – but the game is often characterised as ‘gentle’, I think, because of the ‘multiple middles’ opportunity to pace your own experience.

So, when I talk about Multiple Middles, what I mean is exploration-focussed, lateral narrative design which opens up a community of characters, rather than linear choice-and-consequence style storytelling, focussed only on the hero and how the weight of their agency affects the world.

  • Characters have routines and habits in the physical space of the game, making exploration easier.
  • You can choose which characters or subplots you’re more interested in.
  • Tying story to the natural ebb and flow of different times of day allowed natural pacing.
  • Transparency around time enables the player to define their own pace.
  • Characters live full and well rounded lives, feel situated and whole, grounding the fantasy setting.
  • You can talk about community more effectively, when it’s not there to serve the player, but rather the player is rewarded for exploring and listening. Tending to their story, rather than applying pressure to it.
Bopek is tired of the talking now, get to the learning points!

What can you learn?

To take more general principles from this talk, I’d like to advocate for the consideration of player agency as a quality, not a virtue, of writing for games. Restricting agency can often help you tell your story more effectively, intuitively, and in a manner which allows you to explore tougher and more complicated themes sensitively. Multiple Middles style design allows for player agency through exploration, rather than changing outcomes.

One of the most meaningful dialogue options I offer players in Mutazione is often ‘Stay Quiet’. When someone is talking to you of their grief, or sorrow, or regrets, sometimes the most powerful act, is to not to act, but to listen. We can build narrative design that supports the telling of that, Multiple Middles is how I, personally, attempted it.

Further Reading:

I’d also like to finish the end of the official transcript to accompany this post with the fact that some of the best writing on interactive storytelling structure is definitely from Emily Short. It’s likely my ‘Multiple Middles’ is also described on her blog somewhere with a much more concise description. I am not inventing anything here except the name that I call this conscious narrative design choice.

I would strongly recommend checking out the plot and narrative structure tag on her website, and I’d also highlight three particular posts as good narrative design starting points: “Small-Scale Structures in CYOA“, Storylets: You Want Them” and  “Beyond Branching: Quality-Based, Salience-Based, and Waypoint Narrative Structures“.

Being clear that you are building on the rich work of others in your field, that you are aiming to grow definitions and present your work as an example of a development of a rich history, rather than your singular invention, isn’t something that a 15 minute innovation panel leaves much room for – rather it is the format itself – 4 different designers speaking about their challenges and solutions to be found in their craft.  Without that context, I wanted to offer this ending to make clear that my craft is only articulable in the context of others’.

Hannah Nicklin
CEO and Creative Lead at Die Gute Fabrik, Writer and Narrative Designer on Mutazione.
More posts by Hannah Nicklin

Published on:
5 Mar 2021


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